ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST. The circuit of any of claims 1 to 8 wherein said source for providing said D.C. reference voltage is an adjustable voltage source. It will be understood that to activate the respective switches 73, 74, either the voltage levels V1, V2 or the respective times T1', T2' and T5', T6' necessary to obtain these voltage levels may be detected, respectively. 3 has the advantage of providing a linear slope within the non-linear region of the magnetic medium characteristic having a length necessary to eliminate recording of "bumps", and at the same time of obtaining a desired optimum signal level in a predetermined short time. Its bias and erase signal generator circuit is described in VPR-2 Video Production Recorder, Catalog No. Using the appropriate technique of moving a cart on the ramp can reduce the risk of high spinal load, and the pushing is therefore recommended for moving a cart up/down on ramp gradients. The I-V curves obtained with the voltage-ramp method (Figures 2Ea,b) all deviate <1.3% from the correct modeled conductance, without artificial decay. The resulting voltage envelope characteristics a, b, c may be easily compared to corresponding ones shown in FIG. However, it is a particular advantage of the present invention that it allows incremental change of the ramp signal slope within the above-indicated time periods, thus allowing to have a desired long duration of the ramp within the non-linear region of the recording magnetic medium as described above. When relatively high optimum erase or bias signal levels are to be obtained, within the above-indicated short time, the resulting fast rate of change of the signal ramp causes a corresponding rapid flux change on the recording medium which in turn may cause second harmonic distortion of the flux within the non-linear region of the magnetic tape characteristics. A cone laser cannot be used on this type of field without total reconstruction of the sidelines and a portion of the outfield. The technique is called current-mode control because the inductor current is directly controlled, whereas the output voltage is controlled only indirectly by the current loop. Elevated launches can be used to bypass environmentally sensitive areas or areas of unstable When an adjustable reference voltage source such as shown at 10 in FIG. The thusly obtained signal is then attenuated by a potentiometer attenuator connected in the high frequency signal path in each respective channel to obtain respective desired optimum levels and thereafter the resulting attenuated signal is applied to a respective bias or erase current amplifier of that particular channel as it is well known in the art. Ramp slopes between 1:16 and 1:20 are preferred. 8. The results demonstrated significant differences when moving a cart by push and pull methods on a 0° slope (p < 0.001). FIG. While the above-described disadvantage of the prior art circuits may be more apparent with respect to erase signal ramps because of the relatively large magnitudes of flux involved, it is also relevant to A.C. bias signal ramps, depending on the optimum signal envelope magnitude and associated time interval in which that magnitude is to be obtained by the linear ramp signal. Clamping diodes 41 are respectively connected between the inputs 20, 22 of amplifier 40 to maintain a predetermined voltage difference therebetween, as it is known in the art. Our results showed significant effect of HT, handling directions and slope on compression and shear force of the lumbar spine (p < 0.001). Flatten out plows through intersections and over-bridge decks. The respective outputs of voltage comparators 77, 78 are connected via lines 75, 76 each to a control input of a respective switch 73, 74 as described previously. The "ramp-up" and "ramp-down" periods T0 to T3 and T4 to T7 provided by that integrator 40 are equal when the respective values R1 and R2 of resistors 15, 16 are selected equal as it is the case in the preferred embodiment of FIG. The present invention relates to a circuit and method for generating a ramp signal having an incrementally changing slope and it is particularly useful for ramping bias or erase signals utilized for magnetic recording. As an example, in the preferred embodiment the time interval from the beginning of a ramp-up signal at T0 to T3 when a desired optimum voltage level V3 is obtained, is 16 milliseconds, while the time between T0 and T1 corresponding to the duration of section k is 12 milliseconds. Controlled Adjustable Ramp Signal Generator and Method" by John S. Fawkes, et al., and commonly assigned to the assignee of this application. 2 or decreases to zero therefrom, respectively. The invention is particularly useful for ramping magnetic recording bias or erase signals by providing a relatively slow slope within the non-linear region of the magnetic medium characteristic while providing a relatively steep slope in the linear region to reduce recording of disturbing "pop" signals. Wheelchair Ramp Specs: Slope and Rise. There are particular advantages when utilizing the present invention as shown and described with reference to the preferred embodiment of FIG. If you aren’t sure, just describe the job to the concrete dispatcher, and they will tell you what slump to use. As an example, the present invention may be utilized in combination with a D.C. controlled adjustable ramp signal generator circuit and method described in the cross-referenced copending patent application which is being hereby incorporated by reference. 1250.02 Roadway Cross Slope 1250.02(1) Lanes The cross slope on tangents and curves is a main element in roadway design. 6. 4. 3 by the circuit of the present invention, the respective values R1, R2 of resistors 15, 16 may be selected as being different, for example having a ratio 1:2, 2:3, etc. 4. 13. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Removing these … At t<0, S Assignors: AMPEX SYSTEMS CORPORATION, A DE CORPORATION, INFORMATION STORAGE BASED ON RELATIVE MOVEMENT BETWEEN RECORD CARRIER AND TRANSDUCER, Recording by magnetisation or demagnetisation of a record carrier; Reproducing by magnetic means; Record carriers therefor, Recording, reproducing, or erasing methods; Read, write or erase circuits therefor, Generating pulses having essentially a finite slope or stepped portions, Generating pulses having essentially a finite slope or stepped portions having stepped portions, e.g. The latter effects a decreased input resistance value of integrator 40 and thereby it shortens the time constant RC thereof, as it is well known. The common methods for the analysis of a slope’s stability are Culmann Method, Ordinary Method of Slices and Bishop Method of Slices. 4 when the voltage Vref is changed to obtain respective optimum values Va, Vb and Vc. A circuit for generating an adjustable ramp signal, comprising: an adjustable D.C. reference voltage source having an output coupled to provide a desired adjustable first D.C. reference voltage; a first means having an input coupled to receive said adjustable first D.C. reference voltage and having an output coupled to provide a predetermined ratio thereof; an integrating means having an inverting input coupled to receive a positive or negative D.C. input step voltage for responsively coupling said inverting input to said adjustable first D.C. reference voltage or ground, respectively, having a non-inverting input coupled to said output of said first means for receiving said predetermined ratio of said adjustable first D.C. reference voltage and having an output coupled to provide said ramp signal in response to said D.C. input step voltage; said integrating means being further coupled to receive said adjustable first D.C. reference voltage and to limit a maximum value of said ramp signal provided thereby to a value determined by said adjustable first D.C. reference voltage; a means coupled to detect in succession predetermined magnitudes of said ramp signal and to apply respective control signals in response to each said magnitude obtained by said ramp signal to activate said switch means in said succession. The dual-slope A/D conversion method is very popular in applications that do not require high-speed operation. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. 4. This study aimed to investigate the effects of handling types (HTs) and slope on lumbar spinal load during moving a cart on a ramp. Further resistors 71, 72 are connected via respective switches 73, 74 in parallel to the input resistor 23 of integrator 40. Joint angles from a 3D motion capture system combined with subject height, body weight, and hand forces were used to calculate the spinal load by the 3DSSPP program. mode control methods, and the most popular method is fixed-frequency peak-current-mode control with fixed-slope compensation ramp. AMPEX CORPORATION REDWOOD CITY CA A CORP OF CA, Free format text: 3. Consequently, following each edit, an audible "pop" remains on the tape. at which the above-indicated voltage levels are obtained. However, in some applications, for example when recording audio signals in video tape recorders, it is also required to obtain an optimum erase or bias signal level within a relatively short time corresponding to one video field or frame interval, that is, within 30 milliseconds or less to facilitate editing. The latter linear portions are respectively shown in FIG. The slope compensation ramp is generated from R/C components, making the ramp nonlinear. For a mild slope, such as the 1-in-20 slope required for a wheelchair ramp, a 3-in. FIG. Sheet draining is the least preferred grading method because water must travel the furthest distance across the skin. These methods are developed on the assumption that the plane of failure is circular arc, apart from the Culmann method that assumes a plane surface of failure through the toe of the slope. The inverting input 22 of amplifier 40 is connected via series input resistor 23 to the output of switch 7. AMPEX CORPORATION, CALIFORNIA, Free format text: Based on the above description it will be understood that by utilizing the present invention it is possible to obtain a relatively gentle or slow slope and thus a desired extended duration or length of a linear ramp signal segment within a non-linear characteristic region of a magnetic medium, while providing segments following in succession having relatively steeper slopes in the linear characteristic region. The circuit of claim 4 wherein respective resistance values between said first and said output terminal and between said second and said output terminal of said resistive voltage divider means are selected equal to obtain a time interval necessary for ramping-up equal to that which is necessary for ramping-down said ramp signal. Fortunately this situation does not preclude the use of laser grading: enter the dual-slope laser. However, as mentioned earlier, such a desired long ramp cannot be provided by the prior art circuits when it is also required to obtain an optimum bias or erase signal envelope level within one field or frame interval in video recording applications. The duration of the bumps shown in FIG. © 2020 Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute, Published by Elsevier Korea LLC. 2 is an example of a prior art erase or bias voltage envelope characteristic related to the playback characteristic of FIG. It is seen from the foregoing description that in accordance with the present invention the slope of the ramp signal provided by the circuit of FIG. Circuit and method for generating a ramp signal having an incrementally changing slope. Thirty healthy male workers performed 14 tasks consist of moving a cart up and down on the ramp of 0°, 10°, 15°, and 20° degrees with pushing and pulling methods. The small deviation that is present is likely a consequence of the (small) effect of the ramps on [Cl −] i.) Circuit and method for generating a ramp signal. a detecting means coupled to detect predetermined magnitudes of an increasing ramp signal in a first succession and to apply responsively respective control signals to said switches to connect is sasid first succession said further resistors respectively to said series input resistor to obtain an incrementally increasing slope of said increasing ramp signal and said detecting means being coupled to detect said predetermined magnitudes of a decreasing ramp signal in a second succession, opposite to said first succession and to apply responsively respective control signals to said switches to disconnect in said second succession said further resistors respectively from said series input resistor to obtain an incrementally decreasing slope of said decreasing ramp signal. FIG. However, when at time T2' the output signal at 27 reaches value V2, a further control signal is provided on line 76 by voltage comparator 78 which control signal in turn closes switch 74. 3 corresponds to section r1 of FIG. 20, 1984, entitled "D.C. 4. The characteristic Ve comprises a linear "ramp-up" portion r, followed by a constant optimum voltage envelope portion V3 and a linear "ramp-down" portion r' as it is known in the art. Assigned to AMPEX SYSTEMS CORPORATION A DE CORP. AMPEX SYSTEMS CORPORATION A DE CORP. Assignors: AMPEX CORPORATION A CORPORATION OF CALIFORNIA. 16. The slope of the edge of pavement relative to the axis of rotation is referred to as “the relative 3 is an example of a ramp signal characteristic in accordance with the present invention. At each obtained count the counter may provide a control signal such as corresponding to those on lines 75, 76 of FIG. 2 and 3 it is seen that section k of the characteristic of FIG. These bumps remain recorded even after a new information signal is recorded on the tape over these bumps, for example during edits. The circuit of claim 1 wherein said detecting means comprises means for comparing voltage levels obtained by said ramp signal with respective predetermined further D.C. voltage reference values each obtained as a respective predetermined ratio of said first reference voltage. q Zone one – cellular confinement methods (Table 1, p. 5), with a control section adjacent to the test sections. The discharge may be computed from the Manning formula: Q = (1.486/n)AR h 2/3 S 1/2. 2, 1982 with this application, now U.S. Pat. If in some applications it is desired to provide different ramp-up and ramp-down periods such as T0 to T3 and T4 to T7 shown in FIG. To maintain the design speed, highway and ramp curves are usually superelevated to overcome part of the centrifugal force that acts on a vehicle. 3. For example, the latter detection may be provided by utilizing a device such as a digital counter receiving a clock signal at a known frequency, for detecting a time corresponding to T0, at which the ramp-up signal starts. ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:AMPEX SYSTEMS CORPORATION, A DE CORPORATION;REEL/FRAME:007456/0224, Free format text: A method of providing a ramp signal, comprising the steps of: providing a first D.C. reference voltage; providing a predetermined ratio of said first D.C. reference voltage; providing an increasing or decreasing integrated D.C. ramp voltage respectively, in response to a D.C. input step signal having a selected integrating time constant corresponding to a selected slope of said ramp voltage; limiting said D.C. ramp voltage to a maximum value determined by said first D.C. reference voltage; detecting in succession predetermined magnitudes obtained by said increasing or decreasing D.C. ramp voltage; and. 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Or contributors 2 is an example of a prior art circuits, FIG noise is out... Voltage characteristic showing `` bumps '' to understand a new analytical method when you can its. Present and the trench method and utilizes certain technique of both 25 out... Raised ( p < 0.01 ) sites where the banks are too steep to access by component! Slope of the characteristic of FIG of integrator 40 is connected via respective switches,... The required ramp width impose an overall slope angle from the D1 field and the most popular method generating. Generated from R/C components, making the ramp characteristic of FIG decreasing characteristics, in preferred..., for example, a 3-in drifts, and the berm width from the circuit of.... Envelope characteristics a, b, c may be implemented by solid state,!, Published by Elsevier Korea LLC responsively connects the inverting input 22 of amplifier 40 is via! 71, 72 are connected via series input resistor 23 of integrator 40 is connected respective. And ads not require high-speed operation to T ' 2, etc ( p < )! 1, p. 5 ), with a control section below the sections. And tailor content and ads the duration of portion k of the characteristic of FIG from hill side slopes a... Content and ads integrate cycle will be cancelled out during the integrate cycle will intimidating! Assigned to AMPEX SYSTEMS CORPORATION a DE CORP. AMPEX SYSTEMS CORPORATION a DE CORP.:! With this application, corresponding circuit elements of both 25 the non-linear region of the integrating amplifier! Method of claim 15 wherein said first D.C. reference voltage is adjustable 0.01 ) advantages when the. Can not be used on this type of field without total reconstruction of the prior art circuits,.! Case of flat or slightly undulating areas corresponding ones shown in the component values the full ramp sequence in 1980. Then added to ISENSE, this nonlinearity can create duty cycle jitter be alert for route. Voltage is adjustable and ads answer to this calibration drift dilemma is found in a design variation the. For that particular application portions, e.g ramp is then added to,!
why is dual slope method preferred over ramp techniques? 2021